What is the cause of CBPP in cattle?

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides. It attacks the lungs and membranes that line the thoracic cavity (the pleura) causing fever, laboured or rapid respiration, cough, and nasal discharges.

Cattle, both Bos taurus and Bos indicus, are the main hosts of the disease. Although sheep and goats can also be naturally infected, there is no clear associated pathology. Wild bovids and camels, on the other hand, seem to be resistant and so far, do not appear to be relevant in the transmission of CBPP.

The incubation period of the disease is usually 1 to 4 months and it is highly contagious with a mortality rate of up to 50 per cent (can be longer). Clinical signs may appear in 2 to 3 weeks.

Transmission
CBPP occurs in great numbers in bronchial secretions, nasal discharges, and exhaled air. However, the spread of the infection through urine droplets has not been fully confirmed.
Microorganisms have also been isolated from bull semen, but transmission through semen is under further investigation.
Some animals can carry the disease without showing signs of illness. This makes controlling it more difficult.

Symptoms
Some of the clinical symptoms of CBPP include
• Dilation of the nostrils
• Frothy saliva at the mouth
• Laboured and painful breathing
• Nasal discharge
• Panting
• Standing with the head and neck extended
• Fever
• Moist coughing from exercise
• Reluctance to move
• Grunting/groaning
• Emaciation
• Swollen, painful joints (calves)

Prevention
Prevention measures can be categorized into three:

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General prevention
1. Restrict or stop all animal movements to prevent entry or spread of the disease.
2. Use strict biosecurity measures for animals, animal products, vehicles, people and equipment.
3. Observe, detect and report any disease or unusual signs to your herd veterinarian as quickly as possible.

Farm Perimeter
1. Limit access to your farm.
2. Stop all movement of susceptible animals in and around your farm.
3. Post signs at the farm entrance to inform visitors of procedures to follow on your farm.

Animal prevention
1. Monitor cattle closely and frequently for any developing illness or signs of disease.
2. Do not allow any animal to come in contact with urine, saliva, fetal membranes, or uterine discharge of infected animals.
3. Educate yourself and train your employees to recognize the clinical signs of CBPP
4. Contact your herd veterinarian immediately to examine sick animals.

Treatment
The effectiveness of treatment has not been adequately detected. Antibiotic treatment is also not recommended as it may delay recognition of the disease, create chronic carriers and encourage the emergence of resistant mycoides strains. Outbreaks can be eradicated with quarantines, slaughter of infected and in-contact animals, cleaning and disinfection.

Source: AgroNigeria