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Tree crops are orchards of trees cultivated for some type of economic or ecological benefit. While fruit or nut trees are the most common type of tree crop, trees may also be grown as crops for other purposes. Tree crops may be grown in large capacities but are also popular for small businesses and family farms. In many regions, these crops make up a noteworthy portion of the farming economy.

Rubber

Apply 12 kg of compost or FYM and 120 g of rock phosphate in each pit before planting for immature rubber trees at pre-tapping stage. Apply 10:10:4:1.5 NPK and Mg as per schedule given below:

 

Months after planting Period of application Quantity per plant
10:10:4 12:12:6
3 September/October 225 g 190 kg
9 April/May 445 g 380 kg
15 September/October 450 g 380 kg
21 April/May 450 g 480 kg
27 September/October 550 g 480 kg
33 April/May 550 g 380 kg
39 September/October 450 g 380 kg

 

Apply 400 kg of mixture/ha in 2 doses, once in April/May and another in September/October from the 5th year till the tree is ready for tapping.

For matured rubber trees under tapping,

Apply NPK 12:6:6 mixtures at the rate of 400 kg/ha every year in two split doses. Add 10 kg commercial Magnesium sulphate for every 100 kg of the above mixture if there is magnesium deficiency.

 

Tea

At Nursery

After the tent is removed the cuttings are sorted and staked. 30 g of Nursery soluble mixture of the following composition dissolved in 10 litres of water may be applied over an area of 4 sq.m. This should be done fortnightly. After transplanting Manuring should be done 2 months after planting. Phosphorous should be applied at 80 – 100 kg/ha as Rock phosphate once in a year by placement at 15 – 25 cm depth up to the first pruning and thereafter once in two years. N: K ratio 2: 3 should be adapted for the first 3 years and a ratio 1: 1 thereafter.

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Year of application Total weight kg/ha/annum No. of applications Qty/plant (g)
N K Ammonium Sulphate Urea
1 Year 180 270 5 13 27
2nd 240 360 6 23 15
3rd 300 450 6 29 18
4th onward 300 300 6 33 19

 

Application of fertilizers should be done before the onset of monsoon. Fertilizers should be broadcast around the drip circle avoiding contact with the collar.

 

Betelvine

Apply 150 kg N/ha/year through Neem cake (75 kg N) and Urea (75 kg N) and 100 kg P2O5 through Super phosphate and 30 kg Muriate of potash in three split doses first at 15 days after lifting the vines and second and third dose at 40 – 45 days’ intervals. Apply on beds shade dried neem leaf or Calotropis leaves at 2 t/ha and cover it with mud (2 t in 2 split doses).

 

Time of application (kg/ha) N P K
Basal dressing 37.5 100 50
Top dressing at 3 split doses 112.5

 

Cashew

Fertilizer application may be done during November – December in the East Coast areas. Wherever possible the fertilizer can be applied in 2 equal split doses during June-July and October-November periods.

 

Manures and fertilizers (per tree) 1 year old 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years onward
Compost (kg) 10 20 20 30 50
N (g) 70 140 210 280 500
P (g) 40 80 120 160 200
K (g) 60 120 180 240 300

 

Arecanut

Apply to each bearing palm (5 years and above) 10 – 15 kg of FYM or green leaf. 100 g N, 40 g P and 150 g K. To palms less than five years old, half of the above dose is recommended. Manures are applied during January – February after the North – East monsoon in a basin of 0.75-1.00 m radius around the tree to a depth of 20 – 30 cm.

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Time of application (kg/ha) N P K
Trees less than 5 years 50 20 25
Trees more than 5 years old 100 40 150

 

Cocoa

Trees of 3 years of age and above are manured with 100 g N, 40 g P and 140 g K per tree in two split doses during April – May and August – September. Trees younger than three years may be applied with half of this dose.

Time of application (kg/ha) N P K
1 – 3 years old trees 50 20 70
Trees more than 3 years old 100 96 140

 

Coconut

From 5th year onwards, apply 50 kg of FYM or compost or green manure. 1.3 kg urea (560 g N), 2.0 kg super phosphate (320 g P2O5) and 2.0 kg muriate of potash (1200 g K2O) in two equal splits during June – July and December – January. Apply manures and fertilizers in circular basins of 1.8 m from the base of the palm, incorporate and irrigate. During 2nd, 3rd and 4th year ¼, ½ and ¾ doses of the above fertilizer schedule should be adopted respectively. Sufficient moisture should be present at the time of manuring. Fertigation may be done at monthly intervals with 75% of the recommended dose of the above fertilizers. Phosphorous may be applied as super phosphate in the basins and incorporated or as DAP through drip when good quality of water is available.

TNAU Coconut tonic

For nut bearing coconut, root feed TNAU coconut tonic @200ml/palm once in six months.

Bio-fertilizer recommendation

  • 50 g of Azospirillum
  • 50 g of Phosphobacteria (or) 100 g Azophos
  • 50 g of VAM

Mix all the contents in sufficient quantity of compost or FYM and apply near feeding roots once in 6 months / palm starting from planting. Don’t mix with chemical fertilizers and pesticide.

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Organic recycling Any one of the green manure crops like sunnhemp, Calapagonium or Daincha may be sown and ploughed in situ at the time of flowering as a substitute of compost to be applied.  Sow sun hemp at 50 g/palm in the basin and incorporate before flowering. Coir pith compost/vermicompost made from coir pith/ coconut leaves/ other wastes from coconut grove can be applied.

Oil palm

Based on the fertilizer experiments conducted under rain-fed conditions in India, the following fertilizer schedule is recommended for oil palm until specific results are derived from multi locational fertilizer trials. Fertilizer recommendation for oil palm

Age Nutrients gram/palm/year
Year N P K
1st 400 200 400
2nd 800 400 800
3rd 1200 600 2700

 

Source:http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/horticulture/FERTILIZER%20SCHEDULE%20FOR%20PLANTATION%20CROPS.pdf