Call Us: +234-803 053 8099 mail@ogidiolufarms.com

Modern Poultry Management

Poultry

Managing The Modern Poultry

Poultry Production

Poultry refers to all types of domesticated birds. These include chickens, guinea fowl, turkeys’ ducks, geese, ostriches, pigeons, pheasants and other game birds.

Chickens are the most commonly reared poultry in Nigeria. Poultry production may be on small scale or large scale. Before going into a poultry business there are certain   important factors which have to be considered. These factors are:

  • Land requirement
  • The size of the enterprise
  • Housing and equipment
  • Source of your birds
  • Finance
  • Nutrition
  • Management
  • Record keeping

 

Broilers Terms:

  • Broiler: young birds grown for 51/2– 61/2
  • Roaster:young birds grown similar to broiler, but to a heavier weight.
  • Capon:castrated chicken male.

 

Qualities Of A Good Broiler:

  • High body weight
  • Low food consumption
  • Shortergrowing period

 

WHY BROILERS:

  • Need for affordable wholesome animal protein.
  • Economic importance & advantage of the enterprise.
  • Use of unproductive land/property for economic purpose.
  • Understanding your own reason for farming broilers.

 

Broiler Growing Program

All-in all-out system

  • Breaks any cycle of an infectious disease.
  • Comfortable for the farmer.

 

Multiple Age Brooding

  • Growing without break.

 

Farm Location

  • Well drained, dry, non-flooding well ventilated.
  • >500m from housing & industrial areas.
  • Access to water, electricity and transportation.
  • Safeguard against entry of unauthorized people.

 

Design of Building

Facing east-west direction.  Closed housed system.  Cement-rendered floors.

Roofing material. Materials used can be easily cleaned and durable.

Designed to reduce heat stress. Proper ventilation.

Distance between flocks. Rodent and bird proof.

Space Requirement

0.75 to 1 square foot per bird.

Allow extra 1.5-4 inch per bird if using trough feeders or drinkers.

Allow extra 1-2.75 inches per bird if using circular feeders or drinkers.

 

Reducing Floor Space Will

  • Decrease feed consumption & feed efficiency
  • Increase the house ventilation requirement.
  • Increase the incidence of breast blisters.
  • Increase the percentage of birds with poor feathering.
  • Decrease growth rate.
  • Increase cannibalism.
  • Increase mortality.

 

Type of Poultry House

Open-sided house

  • Usually there are curtains (or shutter) that can be rolled up and down on the sides of the building.
  • No light control.

Environmentally controlled house

  • Light-proof(artificial light is used)
  • Ventilation is by exhaust fans

Equipment Required

Brooding equipment or brooders, feeders, drinkers’ other small items include   hoe, bucket, brooms, feed scoop

 Qualities of A Good Litter

  • Have a medium particle size.
  • Be highly absorbent.
  • Dry rapidly.
  • Show low thermal conductivity.
  • Be light in weight, be soft and compressible.
  • Be inexpensive.
  • Be compatible when sold as fertilizer.

 

Husbandry Practice

High standard of bird care.

  • Breed – Receiving Day Old Chick- Heating and lighting program.
  • Ventilation, Feed, Water, Processing, Storage, marketing, Personnel, Health, Diseases and Bio-security.

 

Breeds

Not really breeds but hybrids of many different breeds.

Producers select the characteristic that is most suitable.

  • Faster & larger growth- Large breast meat.
  • Efficient feed conversion -Disease resistance.

 

Where You Buy Chicks (Doc)

  • Well managed farm/hatchery (Salmonella free)- DOC from same parent flock.
  • Which strain of broilers will be most profitable? – What is the breed/flock of origin.
  • What is the breeder or hatchery disease- control program?
  • What quality of chicks will be delivered? -What is the chick size/weight?
  • Are the chicks uniform in size/weight? Are the chicks to be sexed?

Questions to Ask

  • Which strain of broilers will be most profitable?
  • What Vaccination program have the breeders undergone? What is the breeder or hatchery disease-control program?
  • What quality of chicks will be delivered?
  • What is the chick size?
  • Is there need for vaccinating at the hatchery?
  • Are the chicks to be sexed?

 

Preparing for The Chicks

  • Remove all old litter. Clean and scrub the house. Clean/disinfect equipment.
  • Fumigate the house and equipment (formaldehyde). Treat dirt floors.
  • Clean the ground (burn feathers; mow the grass, road repair).
  • New litter.

 

Things to Focus On

Water, temperature, lighting, feeding, ventilation

Brooding

  • Brooding areas must be cleaned & disinfected.
  • Temperature maintained 4-6 hrs before chicks arrive at 35 degrees.
  • Provide 1 square feet per chick.
  • Cover floor with about 4-6inch dry litter.
  • Place feed & water around brooder.

When The Chicks Arrive

Early care is essential, there is nothing like a good start.

Drop the chicks near the brooder heat and the water points.

Open Drinking Systems

Up to seven days, the top lip of the drinker should be set at the height of the average birds back.

  • After 7 days of age, the drinkers should be raised to a level where the bottom of the drinker is even with the average bird’s back.
  • This will help to minimize water spillage and maintain litter quality.

 

Feeds

  • Cover 30% of the floor area with paper
  • Distribute feed evenly on the paper, allowing 50g –70g per bird (3 days’ supply)
  • Tip the chicks onto the feed on the paper, rather than leaving them to find the feed themselves.
  • Make sure the feed form is suitable (not big particles)

 

Light Management for Broiler

Intensity

The amount of light for a growing broiler is only that amount necessary to enable the birds to move around and to see feeders and drinkers.

Higher intensity might induce cannibalism.

The first day the chicks need 24hrs of light & reduced gradually until 18hrs min.

Best to follow recommendations of broiler breed supplier with adjustments for weight (both too high or too low) and for weather conditions.

Important to provide at least one hour of darkness.

Feed and Water

Poor feed quality will result in an unbalanced diet and affect uniformity, growth, health.

A good feed is only as good as each of its ingredients.

Correct size and mix are important.

Good nutrition for health.

Purchase from approved suppliers.

Regular feeding is essential.

Provide clean water ad libitum.

Prevent Feed Wastage

From 114g to 227g of feed per birds can be wasted during 7 weeks. (3-6% of the total feed).

Keep the feed level low in all feeders

  • If the feeders are 2/3 full = 10% wasted.
  • If the feeders are1/2 full = 3% wasted.
  • When less than 1/3 full = about 1% wasted.

 

Uniformity

Measure of variability of bird size in a flock.

Percentage of birds that fall 10% of flock average weight.

Acceptable uniformity is where 75% birds are within 10% average weight.

 

Lack of Uniformity

Males grow faster & convert feed to meat more efficiently than females.

Weekly increase in weight is not uniform.

Weekly feed consumption increases as weight increases.

Early dehydration.

Improper brooding temperatures – Overcrowding

Lack of ventilation – Insufficient feed & water Space-Feed & water quality.

Diseases- Poor sanitation, disinfection, biosecurity- Improper vaccination.

HEALTH & DISEASES

Health Program

  1. Prevent disease outbreak
  2. Flocks observed twice daily
  3. Sick treated & dead removed
  4. Minimize wild birds, rodent, reptile
  5. Abnormal mortality to be diagnosed 6.  Consult vets for disease control program
  6. Use approved vaccines, drugs.

 

Farm Waste Management

Practice good waste management program to ensure no perceptible odour and fly problems such as litter, droppings, dead birds

Hygienic disposal of dead birds

Processing and Marketing

With sound management you should harvest you flock from 6 weeks.

Withdraw feed for 4-6hrs before harvest.

Birds can be sold live or processed further.

Birds are stored as ‘dressed frozen’.

Marketing is mainly done at festive periods.

You can generate market in fast foods, restaurants and hotels.

You can organize your market to supply at regular intervals.

RECORD SYSTEMS: – Success to Production

Record & Analyse Data –

Feed consumption, growth, egg production, egg quality, egg size, mortality, health, feed, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, sales, hen-day, hen house performance.

Processing and Marketing

Egg production involves the use of good layer birds for the purpose of table egg production. The eggs are sold off fresh to the public while the layers, which are no longer laying well (spent layers) are culled off from the farm. Broiler production involves the keeping of the chickens of heavy meat breeds for the purpose of getting good quality meat products usually sold live or processed at 6 – 10 weeks of age.

Poultry are good converter of feed to egg and meat within a short period of time. In the nutritive value, poultry egg ranks second to cow milk. Agriculturists and nutritionists have generally agreed that developing the poultry industry in Nigeria is the fastest means of bridging the protein deficiency gap presently prevailing in the country. It is also a promising source of additional income and quick returns from investment.

  • With sound management you should harvest your flock from 6 weeks.
  • Withdraw feed for 4-6hrs before harvest.
  • Birds can be sold live or processed further.
  • Birds are stored as ‘dressed frozen’.
  • Live bird marketing is mainly done at festive periods.
  • You can generate market in fast foods, restaurants and hotels.
  • You can organize your market to supply at regular intervals.

 

Costing

Poultry production has developed and occupies a place of pride among the livestock enterprises due to its rapid monetary turnover. This single reason, among others has made the enterprises attractive and popular among small, medium, as well as large scale enterprises. The poultry industry has become a diverse industry with a variety of business interests such as egg production, broiler production, hatchery, and poultry equipment.

Poultry can be established with a minimum cost and as a side project in addition to other businesses.

For industrial poultry birds to express their full genetic potential, certain basic requirements must be provided. These include environment, good management, balanced ration and adequate housing. These facilities can be provided through adequate capital base, which is most of the time lacking in Nigeria. High cost of feeds, poor quality of day old chick (DOC), inadequate extension and training facilities has been the bane to commercial poultry production in Nigeria. These problems associated with commercial poultry production make poultry farming in Nigeria popular and highly profitable for investors that overcome the hindrances outlined above.

Families maintain bulk of poultry in Nigeria under low input, extensive system.

For family poultry production to grow in a sustainable manner, the present level of technical efficiency and productivity must be improved upon.

Technical efficiency implies ability to produce maximum output from a given set of input, given the available technology.

The project outlined below has the level of technical efficiency that will render it highly profitable.

This study relates to a proposed production of the following poultry products:

  • Commercial table egg
  • Spent layers
  • Broilers
  • Poultry manure

 

Benefits

Provisions of employment for some Nigerians

Increase in the income of the promoter

Improvement in supply of raw material and food for companies and man respectively, in the state and the country in general.

Managing Layers

The Replacement Pullet See introductory notes on BROILERS

Floor Space Per Poultry

  • What is the least amount of floor space necessary per bird to produce the greatest return on investment?
  • Poultry need more floor space in hot weather than in cold.
  • The more you crowd birds. The poorer the results.
  • As density of birds is increased until some limit, you maximize potential from the house.

 

Space Requirement:

  • 1.5 to 2 square feet per light breed.
  • 2.5 to 3 square feet per heavy breed.
  • Allow extra 1.5-4 inch per bird, if using trough feeders or drinkers.
  • Allow extra 1-2.75 inches per bird, if using circular feeders or drinkers.

 

Floor Rearing

Floor space                  12 birds/meter²

Feeder space                8cm/bird

Water space                  1pan/20birds

Trough                          2.5 cm/bird

cup or nipple                  1per 8 birds

Fountain                       1per 50 birds

Reducing The Floor Space/Bird Will

  • Decrease feed consumption & feed efficiency.
  • Increase the house ventilation requirement.
  • Increase the incidence of egg breakages.
  • Increase the percentage of birds with poor feathering.
  • Decrease growth rate, Increase cannibalism, Increase mortality.

 

Qualities of A Good Litter

  • Have a medium particle size. Be highly absorbent. Dry rapidly.
  • Show low thermal conductivity. Be light in weight. Be soft and compressible
  • Be inexpensive, be compatible when sold as fertilizer.

 

Husbandry Practice

High standard of bird care

Breed, Receiving Day Old Chick, Heating and lighting program.

Ventilation, Feed & Water, Personnel.

Health & Diseases- Biosecurity.

 

Breeds

Genetically developed to satisfy the best attributes intended, particularly selected for high egg productivity.

There are white shelled egg & brown shelled egg producers.

Farmer select the characteristic that is most suitable for his purpose.

Examples:                    Egg laying stock

Meat type stock

Dual purpose stock

 

When You Buy Chicks

  • Well managed farm/hatchery (Salmonella free).
  • DOC from same parent flock.
  • Which strain of pullets will be most profitable?
  • What is the breed/flock of origin.
  • What is the breeder or hatchery disease-control program?
  • What quality of chicks will be delivered?
  • What is the chick size/weight?
  • Are the chicks uniform in size/weight?
  • Are the chicks sexed?

 

Brooding

  • Brooding areas cleaned & disinfected.
  • Temperature maintained 4-6 hrs before chicks arrive at 35 degrees.
  • Provide 1 square feet per chick.
  • Cover floor with about 4-6inch dry litter.
  • Place feed & water around brooder.

 

When The Chicks Arrive

  • Early care is essential, there is nothing like a good start.
  • Drop the chicks near the brooder heat and the water founts.

 

Light Management

  • The aim of light management is to control the light absorbance of the pullet in order to fulfil her laying production potential as a mature hen.
  • Light (natural or artificial) not only makes it easier for the birds to see, eat, and drink, but it also affects the pituitary gland and this stimulation causes mature pullets to begin the production of eggs.

 

Photoperiod and Intensity

  • At the first week give 20-22 hours of light.
  • Then set the hours of light to 12 hours, or according to the length of light at the growing period.
  • Minimum light intensity required for proper sight and eating is 2.5 lux.
  • Recommended light intensity for rearing pullets is 10 lux.
  • Minimum light intensity range required for proper maturation is 5-10 lux.

 

Recommended Bulb Type

  • Fluorescent type recommended in open houses:
    “Day Light”
    “Warm White”
  • Recommended light colour in closed houses: Green

 

Feed and Water

Poor feed quality will result in an unbalanced diet and affect uniformity, growth, health and production.

A good feed is only as good as each of its ingredient.

Feed constitute about 70% cost of raising poultry.

Correct size and mix are important.

Good nutrition for health.

Purchase from approved suppliers.

Regular feeding is essential.

0-10 weeks, birds are fed chick mash ‘ad lib’.

10-Point of lay (POL), rationing of grower mash.

At POL, grower + layer mash until 5% reached.

Continue with rationing of layer mash.

Water ad libitum.

It should be cool, clean & fresh at all time

Uniformity

  • Measure of variability of bird size in a flock
  • Percentage of birds that fall 10% of flock average weight
  • Acceptable uniformity is where 75% birds are within 10% average weight

 

Lack of Uniformity

  • Small pullets depressed by bigger (dominant) birds hence poor performance.
  • Difficult to give the proper feed, Cannibalism, Lack of ventilation.
  • Insufficient feed & water space, Feed, water quality and diseases.
  • Poor sanitation, disinfection, bio-security and improper vaccination.

 

Preparing for The Pullets

  • Remove all old litter.
  • Clean and scrub the house and the equipment.
  • Clean the water system (drinkers and tanks).
  • Check the automatic systems, light system, and water.

 

Stock Density of Replacement Pullets

  • 12 pullets per m².
  • Cage Rearing: Feeder space            5cm/bird

Water space

Trough                     2.5 cm/bird

Cup or nipple           1 per 8 birds

  • Live weight (about 1.8kg) in cages
    350 cm² – Minimum

450 cm² – OK

>550 cm² – Good welfare

High Density of Layers in Cages

Overcrowding:

  • Shortage of feeder and/or drinker space.
  • Improper climate control.
  • Improper light location.
  • Sudden panic; solution:  partitions, rounding off house corners
  • Increases mortality.
  • Decreases hen-housed egg production.
  • Decreases hen-day egg production.
  • Reduces eggshell quality.
  • Reduces net profit per bird.
  • May reduce total farm income.

 

Lighting Management

  • Laying hen should be grown with:

Increasing light.

Constant light.

  • Never on decreasing light!!
  1. When pullets are at point of lay day length should never decrease artificially.
  2. The threshold is 12 hr.
  3. Increase ½ hr each week till 16 hr.
  4. Stay at 16 hours during laying period.

 

Type of Light

Incandescent

  • Cheapest to install.
  • Low light efficiency.
  • Necessitates reflectors.
  • Short bulb life:  750 to1000 hours.

 

Fluorescent

  • 3 to 4 times the efficiency of incandescent light.
  • Much higher light level for power used.
  • Fluorescent installation is more expensive than incandescent.
  • 10 x longer life than incandescent bulbs.

 

Intensity

Laying hens need at least 10 lux = 1 foot candle.

 

Light Spectrum

  • Red light stimulates egg production.
  • Day light.
  • Warm white.
  • Cool white.

Personnel
Knowledgeable and trained

Wear uniform clothing.

Activities consistent & schedule.

Minimize movement of equipment.

Provide sanitary facilities.

Health and Diseases

Health program

  • Prevent disease outbreak.
  • Flocks observed twice daily.
  • Sick treated & dead removed.
  • Minimize wild birds, rodent, reptile.
  • Abnormal mortality to be diagnosed.
  • Consult vets for disease control program.
  • Use approved vaccines, drugs.

Source: Nigeriafishmaster