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There are majorly two kinds of machinery used for land preparation. This includes:

Primary tillage includes

Mould plough 

  • For turning up the soil thereby incorporating crop residues deep into the soil which in turn can help improve soil fertility

Disc ploughs and discs 

  • This machinery iss used on hard soils where the degradation of soil structure is not too critical therefore it is on no account recommended for sandy soil.

Chisel ploughs 

  • Its main function is to loosen the soil to a limited depth of 250 mm. It breaks the soil therefore creating structural unit. However, big clods are formed, restricting plant development.

Rippers

  • This is used when deep cultivation is necessary and turning of the soil is undesirable to ensure better drainage, conservation and utilisation of water. Its disadvantage is that it compacts the soil laterally and inwards, under wet and clayey condition which can limit lateral root development.

Secondary tillage implements

Rotary tiller 

  • Under ideal conditions, on moist clay soils, this useful implement can prepare the seedbed in one operation. On dry, sandy soils it can, however, destroy the structure within a very short period.

Tined cultivators 

  • Tined cultivators include a variety of hoeing implements, which are used mainly for controlling young weeds, but also utilised for breaking surface crusts. These implements are only effective on moist soils. They are completely ineffective on dry, clay soils. These implements are often used for seedbed preparation.

Harrows 

  • Harrows include a variety of implements. The tined harrow is primarily used to level the seedbed, while the disc harrow helps to break surface crusts, but it can be used to break clods to obtain a fine seedbed.